您好!欢迎来到秋名山教育网

高考,考研,公务员考试,小升初,中考,自考,成考,注会,司法考试,四六级,校园,托福,雅思,英语,出国留学,MBA,商学院,中小学,秋名山教育网

秋名山教育网

小曲快报,高考英语对考生的英语水平要求越来越高,阅读理解长难句理解专题练习解析

发布时间:2020-09-20 07:32:41 编辑:小狐 来源:sohu

长难句通常是为了表达的需要,给主句添加许多附属成分(包含非谓语形式)并列成分和使用大量的(clauses)分句。分句包含并列关系、主从关系和两者的结合—并列中有主从关系,主从中有并列关系(复杂分句结构)

长难句的理解首先抓主干,找连词,分析分句之间的逻辑关系,遵循由主到从的理解顺序,把复杂的句子变成简单句来理解,难度自然就降低了。

小曲提示:电子版暗号在末尾哦

01长难句理解考点分析总结

随着《高中英语课程标准》的正式发布,高考英语对考生的英语水平要求越来越高。除了词汇量的要求更高外,句子理解能力的要求也更高,主要体现在高考英语试题中长难句越来越多,因此参加高考的考生必须突破长难句理解这一关。那么考生首先要学会分析句子结构。

句子结构

根据用途句子分为陈述句,疑问句,祈使句和感叹句。根据结构分可为简单句、并列复合句和主从复合句

小曲快报,高考英语对考生的英语水平要求越来越高,阅读理解长难句理解专题练习解析(图1)

小曲快报,高考英语对考生的英语水平要求越来越高,阅读理解长难句理解专题练习解析(图2)

小曲快报,高考英语对考生的英语水平要求越来越高,阅读理解长难句理解专题练习解析(图3)

小曲快报,高考英语对考生的英语水平要求越来越高,阅读理解长难句理解专题练习解析(图4)

小曲快报,高考英语对考生的英语水平要求越来越高,阅读理解长难句理解专题练习解析(图5)

简单句

概述只有一个主语或并列主语和一个谓语或并列谓语即只包含一个主谓结构的句子叫简单句。也就是说,各个句子成分均由单词或短语充当的句子叫简单句。如:

More and more Chinese people are learning English now.

现在越来越多的中国人在学英语。

My father and mother go to work at 7am and come back home at 6pm.

我的父亲和母亲每天早上七点去上班,下午六点才回家。

六种基本句子结构

句子的基本结构有下列六种:

1. 主语+ 系动词+ 表语如:

All the students are on the playground.

The problem is who can really repair the machine.

问题是谁能真正修理这台机器。

2). There be 句型(又叫存在句)可用不同的时态和情态动词)如:

There have been major changes in advertising in the past sixty years.

在过去六十年里,广告有过一些重大的变化。

There must have been great achievements made.Otherwise they wouldnt have been so pleased.

他们一定取得了巨大的成就,要不然他们不会这么高兴的。

If there were no examinations, we should have a much happier time at school.

如果没有考试,我们在学校读书会更为快乐。

3. 主语+ 谓语不及物动词如:

We work hard at English.

我们努力学习英语。

He doesnt work here any longer.

他已不在这儿工作了。

4. 主语+ 谓语及物动词+ 宾语如:

Of all the subjects, I like English and maths most.

所以科目中,我最喜欢英语和数学。

Xiao Li has made great progress in his study of physics.

小李在物理学习方面已经取得了很大的进步。

5. 主语+ 谓语及物动词+ 双宾语间接宾语+ 直接宾语如:

He promised me to buy me a bike as a present on my birthday.

他答应我给我买一辆自行车作为我的生日礼物。

6. 主语+ 谓语及物动词+ 复合宾语宾语+ 宾语补足语如:

On arriving there, I found the meeting over.

我一到达那儿就发现会议已经结束了。

The students often keep their classroom clean and tidy.

学生们经常保持教室干净整洁。

并列复合句

常见并列连词

1. 分句间为并列关系的常用连词:and 和 not only…but also…不仅…而且… neither…nor … 既不…也不… 等,以及连接副词通常要求用逗号与所引导的并列分句隔开besides 而且如:

She set out soon after dark and arrived home anhour later.

她天刚黑她才出发,一个小时她就到家了。

Not only does Xiao Zhang often write to me, but also he often comes to see me.

小张不仅经常给我写信,而且还经常来看我。

2). 分句间为转折关系的常用连词:but (但是) and yet (然而) , while (然而)强调转折对含义) whereas (然而) nevertheless (尽管如此,仍然)等,以及连接副词(通常要求用逗号与所引导的并列分句隔开)however (然而)如:

-- Would you like to come to dinner tonight?

-- I’d like to, but I’m too busy.

请你今天晚上来吃饭,好吗?

我非常愿意,但我忙不过来。

She thought I was talking about her daughter, while,in fact, I was talking about my daughter.

她以为我在说她的女儿,而事实上我是在说我的女儿。

3). 分句间为选择关系的常用连词:or (或者,否则,要不然) otherwise ( 否则,要不然) or else ( 否则,要不然) either…or… 不是…就是…) 等。如:

Dont stand at the door; either you come in or you go out to play.

不要站在门口,你要么进来,要么出去玩。

Would you like a cup of coffee or shall we get down to business right away ?

你是喝咖啡还是让我们立即开始干正事?

4 分句间为因果关系的常用连词:for 因为,由于 so 因此,所以等,以及连接副词通常要求用逗号与所引导的并列分句隔开 therefore 因此, 所以 hence 因此等。如:

Everybody lent a hand, so the sowing was done in time.

人人动手,结果播种及时完成。

It rained, therefore, the football match was postponed.

天下雨,所以足球比赛延期了。

5 分句间存在时间关系的常用连词:when 这时,在那时前一个分句表示的动作正在进行的期间,发生了另外一件事,这里的when 的意思相当于and at that moment.

The farmers were busy getting in crops when it began to rain.

这些农民正在忙着收割庄稼这时开始下雨了。

I was doing my homework when suddenly the lights went out.

我正在做作业,当时突然电停了。

主从复合句

概述由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的句子叫主从复合句。主句为句子的主体,从句从属于主句并充当主句的一个成分。根据从句在句中的句能,从句可分为:名词性从句、定语从句和状语从句

名词性从句

概述: 名词性从句的功能相当于名词。根据其在句中充当的成分,可分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

主语从句

在复合句中做主语的从句叫主语从句。引导主语从句的连词:that 无意义,所引导的主语从句是完整的whether 是否if 是否通常只能用于it 作形式主语的主语从句连结代词:who 谁主格 whom 谁宾格 whose 谁的所有格 what 什么,所…的东西或事情, which 那个,那些whoever 无论谁主格 whomever 无论谁宾格 whatever 无论什么 whichever 无论那个,无论那些连接副词:when 何时 where 何地 how 怎样,如何 why 为什么等。如:

That the 2022 Winter Olympic Gameswill be held in Chengdeis known to us all.

=It is known to us allthat the 2022Winter Olympic Games will be held in Chengde.

=What is known to us allis that the 2022 Winter Olympic Games will be held in Chengde.

众所周知,2022 年冬季奥运会将在承德举行。

宾语从句

在句中做宾语的从句叫宾语从句。宾语从句可以作谓语动词、介词、非谓语动词和一些形容词的宾语。引导宾语从句的连词:that 无意义,所引导的主语从句是完整的whether 是否if 是否通常只能用于宾语从句,但不能与or not 连用 连结代词:who 谁主格 whom 谁宾格 whose 谁的所有格 what 什么,所…的东西或事情, which 那个,那些whoever 无论谁主格 whomever 无论谁宾格 whatever 无论什么 whichever 无论那个,无论那些连接副词:when 何时 where 何地 how 怎样,如何 why 为什么等。如:

No one can be surewhat man will look like in a million years.

没有人确知人类在一百万年后会是什么样子。

-- We havent heard from her for a long time.

--Whatdo you thinkhas happened to her?

我们很久没有收到她的来信了。

你认为她出了什么事吗?

We all consider it a pitythat he was not able to join us in going camping.

我们都认为他不能跟我们一起去野营是一件遗憾的事。

表语从句

在复合句中做主句表语的从句叫表语从句.引导表语从句的连词:that(无意义,所引导的主语从句是完整的)whether (是否)连结代词:who (谁)主格) whom (谁)宾格) whose (谁的)所有格) what (什么,所…的(东西或事情), which (那个,那些)whoever (无论谁)主格) whomever (无论谁)宾格) whatever (无论什么) whichever (无论那个,无论那些)连接副词:when(何时) where (何地) how (怎样,如何) why (为什么) as if/though(好像) because(因为,由于)等。

Is itbecause we are closer to the sun in summer than we are in winter

这是原因我们在夏天比冬天离太阳更近吗?

The reason why he was ill isthat he was caught in the heavy rain last night.

他生病的原因是他昨天晚上淋雨了。

His white hair was so hard that it lookedas if it had been electrified.

他的白头发如此硬的以致看起来象触了电似的。

同位语从句

用作同位語的从句叫同位語从句,一般跟在一些名词如:idea(观点,看法) news(, word(, fact(事实) , promise(诺言) truth(事实) hope(愿望) information(信息) knowledge(知识) problem(问题) thought(思想,想法)belief (相信,看法)等后面,用以说明名词表示的具体内容。引导同位语从句的连词有:that(无意义,所引导的主语从句是完整的)whether (是否)连接副词:when(何时) where (何地) how (怎样,如何) why (为什么)等。如:

You would have no ideahow excited I was at that moment.

你不会知道我当时是多么的激动。

The newsthat he won the English Competitionsurprised us most.

他赢得英语竞赛这个使我们感到非常惊讶。

该句中的that 引导同位语从句,that 不作任何句子成分只起引导作用。

定语从句

在复合句中作定语的从句叫定语从句。被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词,定语从句一般位于先行词之后,引导定语从句的词叫关系词,可分为关系代词关系副词。关系词放在先行词和定语从句之间,引导定语从句,同时它又作定语从句的一个成分使用什么样的关系词要根据先行词在定语从句中所作的句子成分而定。关系代词在定语从句中做主语时不能省略,作宾语时在限定性定语从句中可省略,但如果直接置于介词之后作宾语,则不可省略。关系代词which 或whom 在从句中作介词的宾语时,介词一般可放在which 或whom 之前,也可放在从句原来的位子上,在含有介词的动词固定词组中,介词只能放在原来位子上,而不放在which 或whom 之前。

It is dangerous to let the childrenwho arent old enoughswim alone in the river.

让那些年龄不够大的孩子们单独去河里游泳是危险的。

The buildingwhose roof we can see from hereis a hotel.

=The building,the roof of which we can see from here, is a hotel.

=The building,of which the roof we can see from here, is a hotel.

从这儿我们可以看见它的屋顶的那幢建筑是一家旅馆。

The scientist and his achievements(that ) you told me aboutare admired by us all.

你讲到的那位科学家和他所取得的成绩被我们大家所敬佩。

As is mentioned above, the numberof the students in senior school is increasing.

正如上面所提到的那样,高中生的人数正在增长。

状语从句

在从句中作状语的从句叫状语从句。用于修饰动词、形容词或副词等。状语从句由从属连词引导,根据意义,状语从句可分为:时间, 地点, 原因, 结果, 条件, 目的, 比较, 方式, 让步等九种。状语从句可以放在句末或句首,有时也置于句子的中间,置于句首时或句中时,一般用逗号与主句分开。

时间状语从句

如:

When you read the poem a second time, the meaning will become clearer to you.

当你再一次对这首诗时,你就会更清楚它的意思。

Since he entered the university, he has made great progress in his studies.

自从他进入大学以来,他的学习取得了很大进步。

Scarcely had he entered the classroomwhen the teacher began his lecture.

我刚进教室老师就开始上课了。

地点状语从句

如:

After the war, a new school building was put upwhere there had once been a theatre.

战争结束后,一幢教学楼在曾经是家剧院的地方建了起来。

You should make it a rule to leave thingswhere you can find them again.

你应该养成一种习惯, 即把东西放在下次好找的地方。

原因状语从句

如:

He didnt hear the knocking at the doorbecause he was listening to the radio.

他没有听见敲门声,因为他在听收音机。

As he didnt know much English, he got out his dictionary and looked up the word.

由于他不懂英语,他拿出词典,开始查这个单词。

目的状语从句

如:

John may phone tonight. I dont want to go outin case he phones.

约翰今晚可能打电话来,我不想出去,以防万一他打来电话。

Ill leave him a messageso that he will know where we are.

我会给他留个口信,以便他会知道我们在那儿。

结果状语从句

如:

They worked hard,so that they finished their work ahead of time.

他们都努力工作,以致他们都提前完成了工作。

He gave me such good advicethat I finished the task ahead of time.

他给我提出了如此好的建议,以致我都提前完成了任务。

条件状语从句

如:

I wonder if she will help us but I thinkif she helps uswell be able to complete the work ahead of time.

我不知道她是否会帮助我,我想,要是她帮助我的话,我就能够提前完成这个工作。

Ill lend you my dictionaryon condition that you bring it back in two days.

我会把词典借给你,条件是你两天后就还回来。

比较状语从句

如:

The heart transplant is not done nearly as oftenas it was ten years ago.

心脏移植手术并不象十年前那样经常进行。

They will produce 20% more computersthan we did last year.

他们将会并去年多生产百分之二十的计算机。

方式状语从句

如:

All plants need airas they need water.

所有的植物需要空气正如植物需要水一样。

They talked so muchas though/if they had been friends for years.

他们谈得非常投机,好象他们是多年的朋友似的。

让步状语从句

如:

Although he is considered a great writer, his works are not widely read.

If we work with a strong will, we can overcome any difficulty,however great it is.

如果我们意志坚强,无论困难有多大,我们都能战胜它。

Youngest as he is in our class, he sings English songs best.

尽管他是我们班最小的,但他的英语歌唱得最好。

分析句子的第一步就是了解英语句子的基本结构,才能对复杂的句子结构进行分析。

而复杂的句子结构的产生主要有两种方式,即添加附属成分(包含非谓语形式)和使用大量的(clauses)分句。具体方法如下:

带有较多附属成分的简单句。简单句的主分主谓(宾)可以是多个并列的主语、谓语或宾语,主谓(宾)可以有多个附属修饰成分(定语、状语和同位语等)还可能有插入语等。如:

Having chosen family television programs and women’s magazinesthe tooth paste marketerfor instancemust select the exact television programs and stations aswell as the specific women’s magazines to be used.

解析 在这个有30多个词的简单句中,句首用了现在分词的完成式Having chosen family television programs and women’s magazines作时间状语,动词chosen后有并列宾语family television programs and women’s magazinesthe toothpaste marketer是主语,中间for instance是插入语,must select是谓语,the exact television programs and stations aswell as the specific women’s magazines是三个并列宾语;句末不定式to be used修饰宾语the exact television programs and stations as well as the specific women’s magazines

理解例如,决定选择家庭电视节目和妇女杂志后,牙膏经销商还必须挑选出要用的确切的电视节目和电视台,以及那些具体的妇女杂志。

含有多个分句的并列句。通过标点符号和并列连词分解出每个分句,变成简单句来理解。如:

Discrimination(歧视) isn’t their only concernalmost everyone testing positive for the Huntington’s gene(基因)develops symptoms(症状)during middle ageand doctors can do nothing to help.

解析三个分句均为简单句,分别用分号和and连接。第二个分句用动名词短语almost everyone testing positive for the Huntingtons gene(基因做主语,develops是谓语,symptoms(症状是宾语,during middle age是时间状语。

理解担心受到歧视并不是他们唯一的忧虑,几乎所有遗传性亨廷顿病基因检测呈阳性的人在中年时症状都会显现出来,而医生对此却无能为力。

含有多个分句的主从句。首先要找出主句,根据从属连词分解出不同种类的从句,按层次理解。如:

His journey to the e-mail hell began innocently无知地enough when, as chairman of Computer Associates Internationala software companyhe first heard how quickly his employees had accepted their new electronic-mail system.

解析His journey to the e-mail hell是主句的主语,began是谓语,innocently无知地enough是方式状语,连词when引导时间状语从句,主语是he,其前as chairman of Computer Associates Internationalhe的同位语,a software companyComputer Associates International的同位语;heard是谓语,how是连词,引导宾语从句感叹句结构how quickly his employees had accepted their new electronic-mail system.做谓语动词heard的宾语。

理解他在电子的地狱之旅是糊里糊涂开始的。作为国际计算机联合公司这家软件公司的董事长,他当时还是第一次听说他的雇员们是多么快地就接受了他们公司新的电子。

4.复杂分句结构。在各个分句之间,并列中有主从关系,主从中有并列关系,就构成了复杂分句结构。分析复杂分句结构的关键是抓住主干成分(主谓结构)和连词,分析分句之间的逻辑关系,遵循由主到从的理解顺序,把复杂的句子变成简单句来理解。如:

Howeverthose of uswho are parents of children in this age groupknow that such offers are relatively rare and that many liberal-arts students(文科生) graduate with the belief that the prospective(预期的) workplace may not have a place for them.

解析However是插入语,those of us是主句的主语,其后由关系代词who引导定语从句who are parents of children in this age group修饰主语;know是主句的谓语,其后连词thatandthat引导两个并列的宾语从句that such offers are relatively rare and that many liberal-arts students(文科生)graduate with the belief;在第二个宾语从句中the belief之后是连词that引导的同位语从句,说明the belief的具体内容。

理解然而,我们这些有这个年龄段孩子的家长们都知道,这样的机会少得可怜;我们也知道,许多文科毕业生认为未来的就业市场没有他们的一席之地。

Having collected and evaluated the information, I help other scientists to predict where lava from the volcano will flow next and how fast.

解析主句的主语是I,其前Having collected and evaluated the information是现在分词的完成式做时间状语;谓语是help,宾语是other scientists,不定式短语to predict where lava from the volcano will flow next and how fast.是宾语补足语,在不定式短语中,动词后由连词whereandhow引导两个宾语从句,第二个宾语从句是感叹句,用了省略结构,补充完整为how fast lava from the volcano will flow

理解搜集和评价这些信息之后,我帮助其他科学家预测接下来火山的熔岩会流向何处,以及流速有多快。

又如:

Today it is not unusual for a studenteven if he works part time at college and full time during the summerto have$5,000 in loans(贷款) after four years — loans that he must start to repay within one year after graduation.

解析分析本句应抓住其关键结构:it is not unusual for a student to have $5,000 in loans after four yearsit是形式主语,动词不定式的复合结构for a student to have $5,000 inloans(贷款) after four years是真正的主语,不定式的逻辑主语a student。要注意not unusual是双重否定,实际表示肯定含义。特别要注意连词even if让步状语从句even ifhe works part time at college and full time during the summer在不定式结构中,产生了分离现象,增加了考生的理解难度。只需把让步状语从句放回到句首,理解难度就不大了。另外,破折号后loans是同位语,that是关系代词,引导定语从句that he must start to repay within one year after graduation修饰先行词loans

理解一个学生即使在上课期间做兼职工作,在暑假期间做全职工作,四年下来他仍会欠下5,000美元学费贷款。而这笔钱必须在毕业后一年内开始偿还。这样的事现在已经是很平常了。

全国二卷语法填空题:

The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture finds that between 2005—when the government(start) a soil-testing programgives specific fertilizer recommendations to farmers — and 2011, fertilizer use dropped by 7.7 million tons.

解析The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture是主语,finds是谓语,连词that引导宾语从句and 2011, fertilizer use dropped by 7.7 million tons。宾语从句中是时间状语,破折号中间是关系副词when引导的定语从句,修饰先行词,由于是过去一点时间,所以68空应该填过去时started。在定语从句中,program是先行词,69空后是定语从句,先行词program在定语从句中指物做主语,应该用关系代词that/which引导。

理解中国发现,2005年开始实施土壤项目,该项目(根据)向农民推荐具体使用什么化肥,从那时到2011年, 化肥使用量减少了七百七十万吨。

在分析句子成分时,应特别注意下列几点:

1、句首的并列连词and、or、but、for通常起承上启下的作用,不要将他们归入后文的句子结构分析。

2、是否有同位语和插入语。

3、判断并列成分的层次。

4、替代词的所指对象。

5、是否有省略、倒装和分隔等现象。

6、在分句多的句子中,注意分句中又包含分句的现象。

7、非谓语动词短语在句中作次要成分(定语和状语)时又带着自己较长的从属成分,尤其是状语从句或宾语从句时的结构分析。

8、在有多个分句的复杂句子结构中,状语(单个词、短语或从句)究竟是全句的修饰语还是某个从句或某个词语的修饰语。

1. I can’t live in fear of the possibility that as the earth’s population grows and we use more and more of our non-renewable(不能再生的) resources,our children may have to lead poorer lives.

2. I have known changes for the better and changes for the worse,but I have never questioned the fact that whether I liked it or not,change was unavoidable.

3. They also found that the bus conductor hada major role in pring vandalism(故意行为)and at the times he went up the stairs to the upper deck to collect fares,vandalism did not often occur.

4. Whereas a woman’s closest female friend might be the first to tell her to leave a failing marriage,it wasn’t unusual to hear a man say he didn’t know his friend’s marriage was in serious trouble until he appeared one night asking if he could sleep on the sofa.

5. If you ask people to name one person who had the greatest effect on the English language, you will get answers like“Shakespeare” “Samuel Johnson” and “Webster” but none of these men had any effect at all compared to a man who didnt even speak English—William, the Conqueror.

6. Pasteur discovered that heating the wine gently for a few minutes after it had fermented would kill off the yeast that was left in the wine, with the result that the wine would remain fresh for much longer.

7. At the conference in San Francisco, Donald Louria, a professor at New Jersey Medical School in Newark said advances in using genes as well as nanotechnology(纳米技术) make it likely that humans will live in the future beyond what has been possible in the past.

8. What emerges(浮现) is a picture of an environment where the emphasis is on managing the technology as it spies on people doing their jobs,rather than promoting quality service to customers and providing a fair workplace.

9. First put forward by the French mathematician Pierre de Format in the seenth century, the theorem had baffled and beaten the finest mathematical minds, including a French woman scientist who made a major advance in working out the problem, and who had to dress like a man in order to be able to study at the Ecolab poly technique.

10. It is difficult to measure the quantity of paper used as a result of use of Internet-connected computers, although just about anyone who works in an office can tell you that when e-mail is introduced, the printers start working overtime.

1. I can’t live in fear of the possibility that as the earth’s population grows and we use more and more of our non-renewable(不能再生的) resources,our children may have to lead poorer lives.

解析主句的主语是I,谓语是can’t live,in fear of the possibility是方式状语。在方式状语中,that是连词,引导同位语从句that…our children may have to lead poorer lives.,说明the possibility的内容。在同位语从句中,as是连词,引导两个并列的原因状语从句as the earth’s population grows and we use more and more of our non-renewable(不能再生的) resources。

理解我不能总是生活在对这种可能性的忧虑中:由于地球上人口的不断增长,由于我们正在消耗掉越来越多的非再生资源,我们的孩子可能不得不过着更加贫穷的生活。

2. I have known changes for the better and changes for the worse,but I have never questioned the fact that whether I liked it or not,change was unavoidable.

解析but是并列连词,前后分句之间是转折关系。在第二个分句中,that是连词,引导同位语从句that…change was unavoidable。在同位语从句中,whether…是连词,引导让步状语从句whether I liked it or not。

理解我经历过好的变化,也经历过坏的变化,但是我从来没有怀疑过这样,即不管我喜欢与否,变化总是不可避免的。

3. They also found that the bus conductor had a major role in pring vandalism(故意行为)and at the times he went up the stairs to the upper deck to collect fares,vandalism did not often occur.

解析and是并列连词,连接前后两个并列分句。在前一个并列分句中,that是连词,引导宾语从句that the bus conductor had a major role in pring vandalism(故意行为)在后一个并列分句中,he went up the stairs to the upper deck to collect fares是定语从句,修饰先行词times,定语从句前省略了关系词that或when。

理解他们还发现公交车售票员在防止发生故意方面发挥了重要的作用。当售票员到双层公交车的上层收费时,行为就不常发生。

4.Whereas a woman’s closest female friend might be the first to tell her to leave a failing marriage,it wasn’t unusual to hear a man say he didn’t know his friend’s marriage was in serious trouble until he appeared one night asking if he could sleep on the sofa.

解析whereas是连词,引导让步状语从句a woman’s closest female friend might be the first to tell her to leave a failing marriage,主句是it wasn’t unusual to hear a man say …主句中,it为形式主语,真正的主语为动词不定式短语to hear a man say …动词不定式后say是宾语补足语,say后he didn’t know …是省略了连词that的宾语从句。宾语从句中his friend’s marriage was in serious trouble是动词know省略了连词that 的宾语从句。最后一个分句是连词until引导的时间状语从句until he appeared one night asking if he could sleep onthe sofa,其主句是say是宾语从句he didn’t know his friend’s marriage was in serious trouble。

理解女性最亲密朋友总是第一时间被告知她的婚姻走到尽头,而男性朋友总是直到他出现在面前询问是否可以在朋友的沙发上过夜的时候才知道他现在的婚姻出问题了。

5. If you ask people to name one person who had the greatest effect on the English language, you will get answers like“Shakespeare” “Samuel Johnson” and “Webster” but none of these men had any effect at all compared to a man who didnt even speak English—William, the Conqueror.

解析连词but连接前后两个并列分句。前一个分句中包含一个连词if引导的条件状语从句If you ask people to name one person…条件状语从句中包含一个关系代词who引导的定语从句who had the greatest effect on the English language,修饰先行词one person。后一个分句中,过去分词短语compared to a man …用作方式状语,在方式状语中包含一个关系代词who引导的定语从句who didnt even speak English—William, the Conqueror,修饰先行词a man,William是a man的同位语,the Conqueror是William的同位语。

理解如果你现在问人们谁对英语产生的影响最大,你会得到像“Shakespeare,”“Samuel Johnson,”和“Webster”等答案。但是以上这三人对英语的影响都无法和一位甚至英语都不会讲的者— William相比。

6. Pasteur discovered that heating the wine gently for a few minutes after it had fermented would kill off the yeast that was left in the wine, with the result that the wine would remain fresh for much longer.

解析主句的主语是Pasteur,谓语是discovered,其后的连词第一个that引导的是宾语从句that heating the wine gently for a few minutes … would kill off the yeast。在宾语从句中heating the wine gently for a few minutes after it had fermented would kill off the yeast 是动名词短语做主语,动名词短语中包含一个连词after引导的状语从句after it had fermented,修饰动词heating。宾语从句中的宾语the yeast后是关系代词that引导的定语从句that was left in the wine,修饰先行词the yeast。with the result…是介词短语作结果状语,介词的宾语the result后是连词that引导的同位语从句that the wine would remain fresh for much longer。

理解Pasteur发现,在葡萄酒发酵后,缓慢加热酒几分钟,就能够杀死残留在酒中的酵母,结果葡萄酒就会很长时间地保持新鲜。

7. At the conference in San Francisco, Donald Louria, a professor at New Jersey Medical School in Newark said advances in using genes as well as nanotechnology(纳米技术) make it likely that humans will live in the future beyond what has been possible in the past.

解析At the conference in San Francisco是地点状语,Donald Louria是主句的主语,a professor at New Jersey Medical School in Newark是Donald Louria的同位语,said是谓语,后面advances in using genes as well as nanotechnology(纳米技术) make it likely …是省略了连词that的宾语从句,做谓语said的宾语。宾语从句中,advances in using genes as well as nanotechnology(纳米技术)是主语,make是谓语,it是形式宾语,likely是宾语补足语,连词that引导真正的宾语从句that humans will live in the future beyond what has beenpossible in the past。在这个宾语从句中,beyond what has been possible in the past是介词短语做方式状语,在方式状语中,连词what引导宾语从句what has been possible in the past做介词beyond的宾语。

理解在旧的会议上,位于纽瓦克的新泽西医学院的教授唐纳德•罗利亚说,基因利用以及纳米技术的进步使人类未来的寿命有可能延长到从前不可能达到的地步。

8. What emerges(浮现) is a picture of an environment where the emphasis is on managing the technology as it spies on people doing their jobs,rather than promoting quality service to customers and providing a fair workplace.

解析连词What引导主语从句What emerges做主句在主语,is a picture of an environment是系表结构做谓语。关系副词where引导引导定语从句the emphasis is on managing the technology…rather than promoting quality service to customers and providing a fair workplace,修饰先行词an environment。该句中介词on后有三个动词-ing形式短语作其宾语,分别为:managing,promoting和providing。在这个定语从句中,连词as引导原因状语从句修饰managing。

理解这就勾勒出了这样一种工作环境,在这种环境中,只重视科技手段对员工工作的监视作用,而不考虑提高质量和提高公平的工作场所。

9. First put forward by the French mathematician Pierre de Format in the seenth century, the theorem had baffled and beaten the finest mathematical minds, including a French woman scientist who made a major advance in working out the problem, and who had to dress like a man in order to be able to study at the Ecolab polytechnique.

解析the theorem是主句的主语,其前First put forward by the French mathematician Pierre de Format in the seenth century是过去分词短语做时间状语,其中,Pierrede Format是the French mathematician的同位语。had baffled and beaten是主句的并列谓语,the finest mathematical minds是主句的宾语。including a French woman scientist …是介词短语做定语。在这个定语中,关系代词who…and who …引导两个定语从句who made a major advance in working out the problem, and who had to dress like a man in order to be able to study at the Ecolab polytechnique,修饰先行词.a French woman scientist。在第二个定语从句中,in order to be able to study at the Ecolab polytechnique是不定式短语做目的状语。

理解这个定理,先是由十七世纪数学家皮尔法特提出,曾使一批杰出的数学为难,包括一位女科学家,她在解决这个难题方面取得了重大的进展,她曾女扮男装以便能够在伊科尔理工学院学习。

10. It is difficult to measure the quantity of paper used as a result of use of Internet-connected computers,although just about anyone who works in an office can tell you that when e-mail is introduced, the printers start working overtime.

解析主句是It is difficult to measure the quantity of paper used as a result of use of Internet-connected computers,其中It是形式主语,动词不定式短语to measure the quantity of paper used as a result of use of Internet-connected computers是真正的主语,介词短语as a result of use of Internet-connected computers是原因状语。连词although引导让步状语从句although just about anyone …can tell you …在这个让步状语从句中,主语anyone后是关系代词who引导的定语从句who works in an office,修饰先行词anyone,谓语can tell后是间接宾语you,是连词that引导的宾语从句that…the printers start working overtime做直接宾语。在这个宾语从句中,包含一个由连词when引导的时间状语从句when e-mail is introduced。

理解由于因特网的使用,计算所使用纸张的数量是很难的,然而几乎任何在办公室工作的人都能告诉你,在引进电子后,打印机就开始超时工作。

有福利

本文相关词条概念解析:

宾语

宾语,又称受词,是指一个动作(动词)的接受者。宾语分为直接宾语和间接宾语两大类,其中直接宾语指动作的直接对象,间接宾语说明动作的非直接,但受动作影响的对象。一般而言,及物动词后面最少要有一个宾语,而该宾语通常为直接宾语,有些及物动词要求两个宾语,则这两个宾语通常一个为直接宾语,另一个为间接宾语。在现代汉语中,宾语一般在动词的后面,常用名词或代词来充当,用来回答“谁?”或“什么?”。

说点什么